Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening disease that can be cured with allogeneic cell transplantation (HCT). Haploidentical donor transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (haplo-PTCy) is an option for patients lacking an HLA-matched donor. We analyzed 87 patients who underwent haplo-PTCy between 2010 and 2019. The median patient age was 14 years (range, 1 to 69 years), most were heavily transfused, and all received previous immunosuppression (25% without antithymocyte globulin). Almost two-thirds (63%) received standard fludarabine (Flu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy) 29/total body irradiation (TBI) 200 cGy conditioning, and the remaining patients received an augmented conditioning: Flu/Cy29/TBI 300-400 (16%), Flu/Cy50/TBI 200 (10%), or Flu/Cy50/TBI 400 (10%). All patients received PTCy-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Most grafts (93%) were bone marrow (BM). The median duration of follow-up was 2 years and 2 months. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 17 days. Primary graft failure occurred in 15% of the patients, and secondary or poor graft function occurred in 5%. The incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 14%, and that of chronic GVHD was 9%. Two-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) were 79% and 70%, respectively. EFS was higher for patients who received augmented Flu/Cy/TBI (hazard ratio [HR], .28; P = .02), and those who received higher BM CD34 cell doses (>3.2 × 10E6/kg) (HR, .29; P = .004). The presence of donor-specific antibodies before HSCT was associated with lower EFS (HR, 3.92; P = .01). Graft failure (HR, 7.20; P < .0001) was associated with an elevated risk of death. Cytomegalovirus reactivation was frequent (62%). Haploidentical HCT for SAA is a feasible procedure; outcomes are improved with augmented conditioning regimens and BM grafts with higher CD34 cell doses.
- aplastic anemia