The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent neoplasms derived from the expansion of mutated clonal hematopoietic cells which often demonstrate aberrant differentiation potential with resultant cytopenias and a propensity to evolve into acute myelogenous leukemia. While multiple mutations have been identified which may serve as drivers of the MDS clone, there is accumulating evidence that MDS clones and subclones are subject to modulation by the marrow microenvironment and its inflammatory milieu. There is also a strong link between autoimmune disorders and MDS. In this review, we examine the role of inflammatory cytokines, toll like receptors, pyroptosis, stromal cells, and cellular inflammatory mediators in MDS initiation, propagation, and progression. These contributions in a background of mutational, epigenetic, and aging changes in the marrow are also reviewed. Such inflammatory mediators may be subject to therapeutic agents which will enhance suppression of the MDS clone with potential to improve therapeutic outcomes in this disease which is usually incurable in aged patients not eligible for stem cell transplantation.
- myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)