Purpose: TP53-mutated (TP53m) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have very poor outcome irrespective of the treatment received, including 40% responses (20% complete remission [CR]) with azacitidine (AZA) alone, short response duration, and a median overall survival (OS) of approximately 6 months. Eprenetapopt (APR-246), a novel first-in-class drug, leads to p53 protein reconformation and reactivates its proapoptotic and cell-cycle arrest functions.
Patients and methods: This phase II study assessed the safety and efficacy of eprenetapopt in combination with AZA in untreated high or very high International Prognostic Scoring System-R TP53m MDS and AML patients.
Results: Fifty-two TP53m patients (34 MDS, 18 AML [including seven with more than 30% blasts]) were enrolled. In MDS, we observed an overall response rate (ORR) of 62%, including 47% CR, with a median duration of response at 10.4 months. In AML, the ORR was 33% including 17% CR (27% and 0% CR in AML with less than and more than 30% marrow blasts, respectively). Seventy-three percent of responders achieved TP53 next-generation sequencing negativity (ie, variant allele frequency < 5%). The main treatment-related adverse events were febrile neutropenia (36%) and neurologic adverse events (40%), the latter correlating with a lower glomerular filtration rate at treatment onset (P < .01) and higher age (P = .05), and resolving with temporary drug interruption without recurrence after adequate eprenetapopt dose reduction. With a median follow-up of 9.7 months, median OS was 12.1 months in MDS, and 13.9 and 3.0 months in AML with less than and more than 30% marrow blasts, respectively.
Conclusion: In this very high-risk population of TP53m MDS and AML patients, eprenetapopt combined with AZA was safe and showed potentially higher ORR and CR rate, and longer OS than reported with AZA alone.