Discordant pathologic diagnoses of myelodysplastic neoplasms and their implications for registries and therapies | Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDSIF) Return to top.

Discordant pathologic diagnoses of myelodysplastic neoplasms and their implications for registries and therapies

Journal Title: 
Blood Advances
Primary Author: 
Gorak EJ
Gorak EJ, Otterstatter M, Al Baghdadi T, Gillis N, Foran JM, Liu JJ, Bejar R, Gore SD, Kroft SH, Harrington A, Saber W, Starczynowski D, Rollison DE, Zhang L, Moscinski L, Wilson S, Thompson J, Borchert C, Sherman S, Hebert D, Walker ME, Padron E, , DeZern AE, Sekeres MA
Original Publication Date: 
Tuesday, October 24, 2023

Myelodysplastic neoplasms (MDS) are a collection of hematopoietic disorders with widely variable prognoses and treatment options. Accurate pathologic diagnoses present challenges because of interobserver variability in interpreting morphology and quantifying dysplasia. We compared local clinical site diagnoses with central, adjudicated review from 918 participants enrolled in the ongoing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National MDS Natural History Study, a prospective observational cohort study of participants with suspected MDS or MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Locally, 264 (29%) were diagnosed as having MDS, 15 (2%) MDS/MPN overlap, 62 (7%) idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS), 0 (0%) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with <30% blasts, and 577 (63%) as other. Approximately one-third of cases were reclassified after central review, with 266 (29%) diagnosed as MDS, 45 (5%) MDS/MPN overlap, 49 (5%) ICUS, 15 (2%) AML with <30%, and 543 (59%) as other. Site miscoding errors accounted for more than half (53%) of the local misdiagnoses, leaving a true misdiagnosis rate of 15% overall, 21% for MDS. Therapies were reported in 37% of patients, including 43% of patients with MDS, 49% of patients with MDS/MPN, and 86% of patients with AML with <30% blasts. Treatment rates were lower (25%) in cases with true discordance in diagnosis compared with those for whom local and central diagnoses agreed (40%), and receipt of inappropriate therapy occurred in 7% of misdiagnosed cases. Discordant diagnoses were frequent, which has implications for the accuracy of study-related and national registries and can lead to inappropriate therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT05074550.

Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), permitting only noncommercial, nonderivative use with attribution. All other rights reserved.