Cyclophosphamide | Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

Cyclophosphamide

Brand name: 
Cytoxan
Bone Marrow Disease(s): 
  • aplastic anemia

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Cyclophosphamide (INN), also known as cytophosphane, is a medication mainly used in chemotherapy. It is an alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard type (specifically, the oxazaphosphorine group).

An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. This interferes with DNA replication by forming intrastrand and interstrand DNA crosslinks.

Cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancers, autoimmune disorders, and AL amyloidosis. As a prodrug, it is converted by liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form the metabolite 4-hydroxy cyclophosphamide that has chemotherapeutic activity.

Cyclophosphamide has severe and life-threatening adverse effects, including acute myeloid leukemia, bladder cancer, hemorrhagic cystitis, and permanent infertility, especially at higher doses. For autoimmune diseases, doctors often substitute less-toxic methotrexate or azathioprine after an acute crisis.

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

The abbreviation CP is common for referring to cyclophosphamide, but abbreviating drug names is not best practice in medicine.

Related Clinical Trials

Clinical Trial Status Age Group
Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide Followed By ALLO BMT Recruiting up to 44 year
HSCT for Patients With Fanconi Anemia Using Risk-Adjusted Chemotherapy (RAFA) Recruiting 3 months and older
StemRegenin-1 Expanded vs Unexpanded UCB for High Risk Heme Malignancies Recruiting 2 to 35 years
Reduced Intensity Conditioning and Haploidentical Related Bone Marrow for Patients With Hematologic Diseases Recruiting up to 74 years
Calcineurin Inhibitor-Free Interventions for Prevention of Graft-versus-Host Disease (BMT CTN 1301) Recruiting 1 to 65 years
Stem Cell Transplant for Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) Recruiting up to 18 years
Optimizing Haploidentical Aplastic Anemia Transplantation (CHAMP) Recruiting up to 76 years
Unrelated Donor Transplant Versus Immune Therapy in Pediatric Severe Aplastic Anemia Recruiting up to 25 years
Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplant With Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Patients With Severe Aplastic Anemia Recruiting 1 year to 75 years
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation With Post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide in MDS Recruiting 15 years and older
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Dyskeratosis Congenita or Severe Aplastic Anemia Recruiting Up to 70 years
Reduced Intensity Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Recruiting 18 years and older
Nonmyeloablative Peripheral Blood Mobilized Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease and Beta-thalassemia in People With Higher Risk of Transplant Failure Recruiting 16 years to 80 years
Donor Stem Cell Transplant With No or Low-Intensity Chemotherapy Using Sirolimus and Treated Immune Cells to Treat Blood and Lymph Cancers Recruiting 11 years to 90 years
GVHD Prophylaxis With Post Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Patients With Renal Insufficiency Undergoing a Conventional 8/8 HLA-matched Related or Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recruiting 18 years or older
Transplantation of Partially Mismatched Related or Matched Unrelated Bone Marrow for Patients With Refractory Severe Aplastic Anemia Available up to 73 years

AAMDSIF does not recommend, endorse, or make any representation about the efficacy, appropriateness or suitability of any drug, treatment or therapy listed on this website. Some therapies listed on our site are considered experimental for the treatment of bone marrow failure diseases. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding any therapy, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.