Safety and activity of selinexor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia refractory to hypomethylating agents: a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial | Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

Safety and activity of selinexor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia refractory to hypomethylating agents: a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial

Journal Title: 
Lancet Hematology
Primary Author: 
Taylor, J
Author(s): 
Justin Taylor, Xiaoli Mi, Alexander V Penson, Stella V Paffenholz, Kelsey Alvarez, Allison Sigler, Stephen S Chung, Raajit K Rampal, Jae H Park, Eytan M Stein, Martin S Tallman, Filiz Sen, Mithat Gönen, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Virgin M Klimek
Original Publication Date: 
Saturday, August 1, 2020

Background: The median overall survival of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes refractory to hypomethylating agents is less than 6 months. Currently, no standard therapy for such patients exists. Preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of the nuclear export protein exportin 1 (XPO1) causes nuclear accumulation of p53 and disruption of NF-κB signalling, both relevant targets for myelodysplastic syndromes. We therefore aimed to assess the safety and activity of selinexor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia refractory to hypomethylating agents.

Methods: We did a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in the USA. We included patients 18 years or older with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or oligoblastic acute myeloid leukaemia (defined as blasts ≥20% but ≤30%) refractory to hypomethylating agents and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2. Eligible patients received 3-week long cycles of oral selinexor (60 mg twice per week for 2 weeks, followed by 1 week off). The primary outcome was overall response rate. Complete remission, partial remission, marrow complete remission, or haematological improvement were included in the response categories for assessing the primary endpoint. The activity analysis included all patients who completed at least one full-scheduled post-treatment disease assessment. All patients who were given selinexor were included in the safety analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02228525.