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Novel Approaches and Future Directions in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment

Journal Title: 
The Cancer Journal
Primary Author: 
Bewersdorf JP
Bewersdorf JP, Xie Z, Zeidan AM
Original Publication Date: 
Wednesday, May 31, 2023
Bone Marrow Disease(s): 

Myelodysplastic syndromes/neoplasms (MDSs) constitute a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders that are clinically characterized by dysplastic changes in multiple hematopoietic lineages, cytopenias, and a variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with MDS are classified as either lower- or higher-risk based on risk stratification tools such as the International Prognostic Scoring System and its revised version, which continue to be the basis for prognosis and treatment selection. Although anemic patients with lower-risk MDS are currently treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, luspatercept, and transfusions, the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat and the hypoxia-inducible factor α inhibitor roxadustat have shown encouraging early results and are now in phase III clinical trials. For higher-risk MDS patients, hypomethylating agent monotherapy continues to be the standard of care. However, with various novel hypomethylating agent-based combination therapies in advanced clinical testing and an increased emphasis on individualized biomarker-driven treatment decisions, the standard therapy paradigms might change in the future.