Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway is key to hematopoiesis regulation. Increased activation of this pathway contributes to ineffective terminal erythroid differentiation in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Luspatercept is a novel fusion protein that traps TGF-β ligands preventing them from binding to Type II TGF-β receptors, thereby decreasing phosphorylated SMAD2/3 resulting in the downstream effect of promoting erythropoiesis. Seminal clinical trials using luspatercept, PACE-MD and MEDALIST, demonstrated impressive efficacy in the treatment of transfusion-dependent anemia in intermediate risk or lower MDS had led to the US FDA approval for this indication. This review summarizes luspatercept mechanisms of action, efficacy/safety data supporting its use and ongoing clinical trials in MDS.