A genomics-informed computational biology platform prospectively predicts treatment responses in AML and MDS patients | Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

A genomics-informed computational biology platform prospectively predicts treatment responses in AML and MDS patients

Journal Title: 
Blood Advances
Primary Author: 
Drusbosky LM
Author(s): 
Drusbosky LM, Singh NK, Hawkins KE, Salan C, Turcotte M, Wise EA, Meacham A, Vijay V, Anderson GG, Kim CC, Radhakrishnan S, Ullal Y, Talawdekar A, Sikora H, Nair P, Khanna-Gupta A, Abbasi T, Vali S, Guha S, Farhadfar N, Murthy HS, Horn BN, Leather HL, Castillo P, Tucker C, Cline C, Pettiford L, Lamba JK, Moreb JS, Brown RA, Norkin M, Hiemenz JW, Hsu JW, Slayton WB, Wingard JR, Cogle CR
Original Publication Date: 
Tuesday, June 25, 2019

Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are generally older and have more comorbidities. Therefore, identifying personalized treatment options for each patient early and accurately is essential. To address this, we developed a computational biology modeling (CBM) and digital drug simulation platform that relies on somatic gene mutations and gene CNVs found in malignant cells of individual patients. Drug treatment simulations based on unique patient-specific disease networks were used to generate treatment predictions. To evaluate the accuracy of the genomics-informed computational platform, we conducted a pilot prospective clinical study (NCT02435550) enrolling confirmed MDS and AML patients. Blinded to the empirically prescribed treatment regimen for each patient, genomic data from 50 evaluable patients were analyzed by CBM to predict patient-specific treatment responses. CBM accurately predicted treatment responses in 55 of 61 (90%) simulations, with 33 of 61 true positives, 22 of 61 true negatives, 3 of 61 false positives, and 3 of 61 false negatives, resulting in a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 88%, and an accuracy of 90%. Laboratory validation further confirmed the accuracy of CBM-predicted activated protein networks in 17 of 19 (89%) samples from 11 patients. Somatic mutations in the TET2, IDH1/2, ASXL1, and EZH2 genes were discovered to be highly informative of MDS response to hypomethylating agents. In sum, analyses of patient cancer genomics using the CBM platform can be used to predict precision treatment responses in MDS and AML patients.

Bone Marrow Diseases: