Patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who fail immunosuppressive therapy have a dismal prognosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) is one of the most effective treatment options. Two institutions have independently adopted a post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) approach for patients with SAA undergoing HSCT from a URD. Thirteen patients were included, 11 of whom had been treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Eight patients had a mismatched URD. All patients were conditioned with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation, in various dosage combinations. PTCy was given at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Two patients died, and overall survival was 85% at 2 years. All patients engrafted, but 1 patient developed secondary graft failure. Of the 11 patients alive after 2 years, 9 had complete donor chimerism. All surviving patients were transfusion-independent. Ten patients (77%) had cytomegalovirus reactivation, and 2 patients had more than 1 reactivation. No Epstein-Barr virus reactivation or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease was observed. Four patients had mild hemorrhagic cystitis. In summary, our findings show that PTCy is a promising treatment for patients with SAA undergoing URD HSCT.
- aplastic anemia