Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is characterized by clonal expansion of antigen-activated cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Patients frequently exhibit seroreactivity against a human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) epitope, BA21. Aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndrome are bone marrow failure diseases that can also be associated with similar aberrant CTL activation (LGL-BMF). We identified a BA21 peptide that was specifically reactive with LGL leukemia sera and found significantly elevated antibody reactivity against the same peptide in LGL-BMF sera. This finding of shared seroreactivity in LGL-BMF conditions and LGL leukemia suggests that these diseases might share a common pathogenesis.