Myelodysplastic syndromes are one of the most common hematological disorders in the elderly. Therefore, an increase in the prevalence of de novo but also of secondary forms after prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy, respectively, is anticipated within the next years. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is considered the only potentially curable therapy, but many patients are not eligible because of age or comorbidities. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have improved early tolerability of the procedure, although late effects remain a challenge in the care of these patients. However, hypomethylating agents have become available as alternative therapeutic approaches with a moderate toxicity profile.