Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine (F-araA) and cyclophosphamide (Cy) is associated with improved outcome in young patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and Fanconi anemia (FA), several factors limit the success of the procedure. We evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (POPPK) of F-araA and its influence on HSCT outcome in patients (n=53) with AA and FA undergoing HSCT. Patients carrying a 5'-UTR polymorphism in NT5E gene (rs2295890 G>C) exhibited significantly lower plasma F-araA clearance compared to those with wild-type genotype (7.12 vs 5.03 L/h/m2 (29%) P<0.05). F-araA clearance was significantly higher in patients with AA compared to FA (2.46 ×, P<1e-6). Of all the outcome parameters evaluated (engraftment, rejection/graft failure, GvHD, TRM, OS), high F-araA AUC (>29.4 μm*h) was the only significant factor associated with the development of aGvHD by both univariate and multivariate analysis (P=0.02). The influence of plasma F-araA levels need to be evaluated in a larger cohort of patients to propose the need for therapeutic drug monitoring.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 8 May 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.79.