Advances in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) over the last decade have given patients and their hematologists a multitude of treatment options. Therapeutic options now exist that reduce disease-related symptoms, improve quality of life, and alter the natural history of the disease. Three drugs are now specifically Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of MDS: (1) azacitidine, (2) decitabine, and (3) lenalidomide. Clinical results with each of these agents, plus results with immunosuppressive therapy, are reviewed to guide clinical decision making. Although each therapy has made a substantial impact in improving the care of patients with MDS, unfortunately MDS treatment in 2010 ultimately fails in most patients, but these therapies provide a foundation on which we can build to further improve outcomes.