Efficacy of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in severe aplastic anemia | Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation

Efficacy of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in severe aplastic anemia

Journal Title: 
Primary Author: 
Afable MG 2nd
Afable MG 2nd, Shaik M, Sugimoto Y, Elson P, Clemente M, Makishima H, Sekeres MA, Lichtin A, Advani A, Kalaycio M, Tiu RV, O'Keefe CL, Maciejewski JP
Original Publication Date: 
Monday, May 23, 2011

Background A combination of horse anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine produces responses in 60-70% of patients with severe aplastic anemia. We performed a phase II study of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine as first-line therapy for severe aplastic anemia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty patients with severe aplastic anemia treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin were compared to 67 historical control cases with matched clinical characteristics treated with horse anti-thymocyte globulin. RESULTS: Response rates at 3, 6 and 12 months were similar for patients treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin or horse anti-thymocyte globulin: 40% versus 55% (P=0.43), 45% versus 58% (P=0.44) and 50% versus 58% (P=0.61), respectively. No differences in early mortality rates or overall survival were observed. We then performed multivariable analyses of response at 6 months and overall survival and identified the presence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone (P=0.01) and a pretreatment absolute reticulocyte count greater than 30×10(9)/L (P=0.007) as independent predictors of response and younger age (P=0.003), higher pretreatment absolute neutrophil (P=0.02) and absolute lymphocyte counts (P=0.03) as independent predictors of overall survival. None of the immunogenetic polymorphisms studied was predictive of response to immunosupressive therapy. Conclusions Despite reports suggesting differences in biological activity of different anti-thymocyte globulin preparations, rabbit and horse anti-thymocyte globulin appear to have a similar efficacy for up-front treatment of severe aplastic anemia. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01231841).

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