Sustained clinical cytopenia is a frequent laboratory finding in ambulatory and hospitalized patients. For pathologists and hematopathologists who examine the bone marrow (BM), a diagnosis of cytopenia secondary to an infiltrative BM process or acute leukemia can be readily established based on morphologic evaluation and flow cytometry immunophenotyping. However, it can be more challenging to establish a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In this article, the practical approaches for establishing or excluding a diagnosis of MDS (especially low-grade MDS) in patients with clinical cytopenia are discussed along with the current diagnostic recommendations provided by the World Health Organization and the International Working Group for MDS.
- myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)