Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are typical diseases of the elderly. The clinical outcome of a well-characterized cohort of patients with MDS was analyzed for prevalence and impact of comorbidities to establish the basis for tailored treatment algorithms. Focus was on age- and sex-related differences.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
The hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was assessed in 616 well-defined patients from the Austrian MDS platform (median age: 71years).
Most patients displayed one (24.5%) or more (23.7%) comorbidities. The highest frequencies were observed for cardiovascular disease (28.4%), diabetes (12.2%), and prior tumors (9.9%). Comorbidities were more frequent (mean number: 0.92 vs. 0.74 [male vs. female]; p=0.030) and more severe in men than in women (mean HCT-CI score: 1.41 vs. 1.09 [male vs. female]; p=0.016). Elderly patients (65+years) showed a higher prevalence of comorbidities than younger patients (HCT-CI score: 1.52, mean in 65+, vs. 0.24 and 0.76 in <45years and 46-65years, respectively) (p<0.001). These differences were most pronounced for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prior tumors (p<0.001). Presence of cardiac arrhythmia or prior solid tumor was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (p=0.023, 0.024, respectively). Moreover, HCT-CI risk grouping remained an independent prognostic parameter for survival in multivariate analysis.
Comorbidities impact clinical outcome in elderly patients with MDS. Distinct diseases cluster in an age- and sex-related manner, which may have clinical implications when designing individualized therapies. Comorbidities should be evaluated with established scores and integrated in decision making.
- myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)