Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoeitic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and potential transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). For decades, the mainstay of treatment for MDS was supportive care, including transfusion of blood products and growth factors. Further understanding of disease biology led to the discovery of a high prevalence of hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in high-risk MDS and secondary leukemias. Hence, the role of irreversible DNA methlytransferase inhibitors such as azacitidine was investigated with promising outcomes in the treatment of MDS. Azacitidine was initially approved in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 for the treatment of all subtypes of MDS and was granted expanded approval in 2009 to reflect new overall survival data demonstrated in the AZA-001 study of patients with higher-risk MDS. Azacitidine has demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful prolongation of survival in higher-risk patients with MDS and has changed the natural history of these disorders. The agent maintains a relatively safe toxicity profile, even in older patients. The role of azacitidine has been explored in the treatment of AML and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and has also been studied in the peritransplant setting. Azacitidine has been combined with other novel agents such as lenalidomide, histone deacetylase inhibitors and growth factors in the hope of achieving improved outcomes. Currently, both intravenous and subcutaneous forms of azacitidine are approved for use in the USA with the oral form being granted fast track status by the FDA.
- myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)