Growth factors refer to naturally occurring proteins capable of stimulating the growth of blood cells. For more than 20 years, man-made red cell and white cell growth factors have been used in the care and treatment of people with bone marrow failure diseases. Recently, platelet growth factors have also become available and are being tested. During this session, Dr. Sekeres and Dr. Desmond will discuss the current role that growth factors have in the treatment of MDS and aplastic anemia, and the role these drugs may play in the future. The risks and benefits of growth factors will also be discussed and compared with the risks and benefits of receiving blood transfusions. Plenty of time will be left for questions at the end of the session.