We have developed a practical conditioning regimen without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), irradiation, or other myeloablative alkylating agent for low-income countries in which patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), who usually have heavily transfused and a prolonged disease history. The application of ATG, Busulphan, and/or irradiation to cyclophosphamide (Cy) to avoid graft rejection has many short- and long-term complications. In this study, we focused on evaluating a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen, among 83 patients with SAA. Patients were treated with fludarabine (40 mg/m(2) /d; day [-5 to -2]) and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg/d; day [-5 to -2]). Altogether, 81 patients indicated initial engraftment, whereas two cases showed primary graft failure. And four of the 81 cases indicated graft rejection during follow-up. Regardless of a high cumulative incidence of acute (55/83; 66.2% grade II-IV; 47/83; 56.6% III-IV) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (50/83; 60.2%), in total, 77 patients showed durable engraftment and transfusion independence, and 64 are alive at a median time of 49 months with an overall survival rate of 66%. In conclusion, this conditioning indicated well toleration, mild toxicity, durable engraftment, excellent survival as well as less cost. Its application might shed new light on SAA at high risk of graft rejection in resource-limited countries.