Allogeneic BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor leads to long-term survival in the majority of patients (> 80%). Therefore, survival is no longer the sole concern and attention has to be paid to decreasing the incidence and severity of long-term complications. For patients without a sibling donor, transplantation from a well-matched unrelated donor can be considered after failure of a previous course of immunosuppressive therapy. After transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor or from an unrelated one, the use of peripheral blood stem cells must be strongly discouraged because they have been systematically associated with an increased incidence of chronic GVHD compared with the use of BM as a stem cell source, leading to an unacceptably higher risk of treatment-related mortality in this setting. For as yet unknown reasons, the age limit after which transplantation results are less satisfactory remains 40 years of age.