Cytogenetic information in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is important in predicting prognosis and therapeutic direction. In MDS, the detection of numerical type abnormalities, either whole chromosome or partial chromosomal segments, is important. In general, conventional banding chromosome analysis is useful in detecting chromosome changes in MDS and is able to predict prognosis. More recently, uniparental disomy at various loci has been found in some MDS patients and target genes located within the deleted chromosome regions; these deletions are either cytogenetically detectable resulting in partial monosomy, or cryptic. Further therapeutic approaches for MDS patients may require more precise cytogenetic information in the near future.