retrospective analysis of 26 pediatric patients with aplastic anemia, treated between 1996 and 2011 with rabbit antithymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine.
the overall response rate at six months was 34.6% (9/26), and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 26.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4%-66%) at 5 years. The cumulative incidence of clonal evolution after immunosuppressive therapy was 8.3% (95% CI: 0.001%-53.7%) at five years with both clonal evolutions in non -responders who acquired monosomy 7 karyotype. The overall survival at five years was 73.6% (95% CI: 49.2%-87.5%).
the present results confirm the poor response rate with rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first therapy in pediatrics patients, similar to what has been reported for patients of all ages. This confirmation is problematic in Brazil, given the lack of horse antithymocyte globulin in many markets outside the United States.