Challenges exist in the diagnosis and treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Early clinical presentation can be subtle, accurate classification requires careful consideration of pathologic features and cytogenetics, and treatment options vary based on disease severity. A performance improvement (PI) continuing medical education initiative was developed to strengthen physician practices and improve the quality of MDS patient care. Physician participants demonstrated significant gains in the diagnosis and classification of MDS and in the documentation of erythropoietin levels. Improvements related to patient communication and disease education were also observed and support the overall efficacy and value of PI in MDS patient care.